A few nice diet supplements images I found:
Lake Condah. Remains of 1,700 year old Aborginal stone house.
Image by denisbin
Gunditjmara Aboriginal people.
When Robertson the Protector of Aborigines visit Edward Henty at Portland in 1841 he also visited the people around Lake Condah and made notes in his journal of their ingenious eel fishing traps. Like other areas of the Western Districts the Gunditjmara people were sophisticated engineers making woven eel traps from water reeds, building permanent stone shelters and digging canals, stone channels and stone traps to catch the annual spring eel migration downstream to the ocean for breeding. This distinguished them from most other Aboriginal groups in Australia. The richness of wildlife meant they could live semi permanently in one spot. The Gunditjmara lived in a relatively small area between Lake Condah, Mount Eccles and Mount Napier on a volcanic plain riddled with lava flows and lava stones comprising about 100 square kms. The landscape itself was formed about 27,000 years ago after volcanic eruptions by Eccles and Napier. The fish and short finned eel traps here on Darlot Creek are dated to around 8,000 years ago and along with their dams, weirs and channels their engineering works stretched 40 kms. The eels travel to New Caledonia for breeding and return to live in the lakes of Mt Eccles after that. They grow to a metre long and as thick as a man’s arm. Some stonewalls constructed by the Gunditjmara were about 50 metres long. They were built to block particular water channels. Channels were also built at different heights to capture the eels no matter how much water was coming down Darlots Creek. The Gunditjmara supplemented their diet of eels with water birds, ducks, plains turkeys, kangaroos and vegetable foods such as daisy yam and rhizomes of bracken fern. They had not great need to be nomadic here. This was Australia Felix for them too.
This ability to harvest eels and other fish annually meant that they modified the landscape, built engineering works, lived here throughout the year and altered their social systems. Although disputed by some, others claim that Gunditjmara people even “owned” particular spots along the creeks and channels giving them a totally different land system to any other Aboriginal groups in Australia. They had hereditary chiefs and a fairly stratified society. And they had permanent stone shelters covered with reeds like thatch and sods of earth to make them rainproof. The shelter walls were only about one metre high and the houses were semi-circular. The dome roof had a wooden structure beneath it to support the weight of sods. The remains of more than 175 houses have been recorded by archaeologists including 145 in one paddock indicating that the Gunditjmara lived in a village like community. But once white pastoralists came in 1840 the end was nigh for the Gunditjmara. They were driven off the land and eventually into Lake Condah Mission. More archaeological surveys now are being conducted on their lands.
But before the Gunditjmara went on to Lake Condah Mission they resisted the white pastoralists. The so-called Eumeralla Wars erupted and lasted for around twenty years. Eumeralla was a location just south of Macarthur. Thomas Browne squatted on 50,000 acres here in 1844 on a property which he called Squattelsea Mere but the leasehold was held by Benjamin Boyd. At 17 years of age Browne was just one of the workers or managers on site. Browne began by admiring the Aboriginals but once the sheep flocks were raided he retaliated. With other squatters a number of raids were made and many of the family of Jupiter and Cocknose the local warriors were slaughtered in 1845. But the warriors attacked again and this time it was the homestead where Thomas Browne and others lived and this time the Aboriginals stole flour, tea and even silver spoons. Concerned about his safety Browne then asked for police assistance and they in turn mounted another attack on the followers of Jupiter and Cocknose. The warriors were never seen again and more Aboriginal people were killed. This ended the Eumeralla Wars but surprisingly, especially given that police became involved, there is no official record of this event occurring. Contemporary newspaper reports mention the theft of cattle in 1845 but there was no reference to reprisals or murders. In fact the newspaper went on to lament the lack of police assistance for settlers under threat of Aboriginal attack. Was the story just part of Browne’s vivid literary imagination? Browne left this run in 1856. Thomas Browne went on to write about these times (but not these events) under the pseudonym of Rolf Boldrewood. His most famous book was Robbery Under Arms but he also wrote The Squatter’s Dream and The Home Run. Regardless of the veracity of this particular incident there were plenty of other incidents of resistance and massacre in the Western Districts.
Lake Condah Station and Mission 1869-1918.
Lake Condah was discovered in 1841 by Edgar and Thompson two settlers from Hamilton. They called it Lake Condon or Condom which was gradually changed to Condah to avoid confusion. The land here was part of a 35,000-acre pastoral lease taken out by George Coghill in 1843 and sold on to Pybus Cooke in 1849. Nearby his brother-in-law Samuel Winter had Murndal station which he had taken up around 1845. Cooke kept Lake Condah run for most of his life and was known for his excellent treatment and relations with the Gunditjmara people. Partly because of these good relations between black and white the Anglican Mission board selected Lake Condah for an Aboriginal mission. Pybus Cooke donated the land and £2,000 for the erection of an Anglican Church at the Mission but the rest of the land (3,000 acres later reduced to 2,000 acres) came from the government which resumed part of his Lake Condah station in 1867. Cooke died in 1895 and his property was inherited by a son who also inherited Murndal from his uncle. Murndal is one of the great historic homesteads of Australia.
The proud and remarkably different Gunditjmara Aboriginal people for good or bad were forced into a strict and severe Anglican mission in 1869. NSW Aboriginal protection officers disappeared in 1850 when Victoria became a separate self-governing state. The Victorian government from 1851 encouraged church mission stations and from 1858 they had a policy of segregating Aboriginal people onto reserves or missions. Victoria only established a Board for the Protection of Aborigines in 1869 when the government starting setting aside land for Aboriginal reserves. By 1874 the Board had control of 50,000 acres. Back in the 1850s the Moravian Mission board in London decided to operate Aboriginal mission to Christianise Aboriginal people in Victoria and the first was at Ebenezer which we visit another day. The Anglican Church joined in too and established Yelta Mission near Mildura in 1855 and Lake Condah in 1869. The Mission was 3 kms from Lake Condah (which is 4kms long and one kms wide) on high ground near Darlots Creek. As it was close to Lake Condah some Gunditjmara people continued trapping eels and using the natural food resources of the lake and Darlots Creek. But generally they were very closely supervised and outside work for other farmers was forbidden. To the north of the Mission was Condah Swamp which is 18 kms long and 2 kms wide. As the winter rains came down Darlots Creek they partially flooded the swamp and filled Lake Condah but importantly they allowed eels to travel downstream in the spring towards the coast. This was when they were trapped by the Gunditjmara people. The eels travelled upstream in late autumn to reproduce.
Although it was an Anglican Mission its first serving and very strict supervisor was a Moravian clergyman Rev. Job Francis. Within a few years houses and mission buildings were erected in a quadrangle around the village green. The Mission had a schoolroom, orchard, dairy etc. The church was not built until 1883 and completed in 1885. Its tower stood 75 feet high. Prior to the church opening the schoolroom was used for Sunday services. By 1871 around 80 people lived on the Mission and by the late 1880s around 120 resided here. In 1875 Rev Stahle another disciplinarian of Moravian faith came from Ebenezer Mission near Dimboola to take charge. He stayed on until 1913 just before the Mission closed. He whipped two boys once and he banished seven families from the Mission and refused to give them rations because he disapproved of their behaviour. But he was a stayer and the Aboriginal people eventually respected this and he was mourned greatly by all involved with the mission when he died in Portland. The Gothic St. Marys Church was a Stahle dream although he could not conduct services there because he was not an Anglican! After the government passed the 1886 Act to ban part Aboriginal people from government reserves and Missions the numbers of residents on the Mission declined quickly to around 34 by 1905. Many Gunditjmara moved to nearby towns and returned to attend church weekly. In 1902 the Mission acreage was reduced from 2,000 acres to a mere 850 acres. Stahle retired in 1913 and the last superintendent arrived. Men from the Mission enlisted and fought during World War One. Both Aboriginals and whites resisted the closing of the Mission but it was inevitable. It closed 1918 and the government confirmed this in 1919. Local whites argued for an Aboriginal reserve but most of the land was subdivided for white farmers except for 46 acres which covered the church and village. The church was dynamited in 1957 but the cemetery remains. A project began in 1984 to restore some of the 23 former mission buildings. Around 2,100 acres were returned to local Aboriginal control in 1987. Today they control about 4,000 acres freehold.
Feeding time at the Mere, Martin Mere WWT, December 2013
Image by Gidzy
"From November until March, Martin Mere welcomes up to 2,000 whooper swans that migrate from Iceland to spend the winter in West Lancashire – a spectacle that is unique to the North West.
Our Swan Spectacular is centred on the daily feeds of the swans. They are creatures of habit and will instinctively fly in as they come up to feed everyday at 3pm from the Swan Link Hide and 3.30pm from the Raines Observatory.
The 3.30pm feed also includes a warden’s commentary as they feed the birds as well as the chance to ask questions.
We feed the birds grain to supplement their diet and also receive waste potatoes from local farmers to encourage the birds to stay on our site rather than feed on local farm land.
The Swan Spectacular was highly commended in the Lancashire and Blackpool Tourism Awards 2010 for Best Visitor Experience, recognising how we’ve taken a natural spectacle and turned it into and educational experience. The feeds are also fantastic for photography."