Saturday , 24 February 2018
The 3 Week Diet
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Cool Diet Programs images

A few nice diet programs images I found:

Doctor Who and the Cybermen close up
diet programs
Image by byronv2
With the 50th anniversary of Doctor Who coming up on November 23rd, 2013, when I was home visiting dad I had a rummage through shelves in my old room. I still have a lot of books there too, including piles of Doctor Who novels from when I was a boy. There are some specials – the effects guy Mat Irvine’s book about doing effects for the show, the Monster Book, Programme Guide etc, but most of these are novelisations of stories from the show’s history.

In the 70s and very early 80s, before home video became affordable and shows were available to buy or rent this was pretty much the only way fans could enjoy the older stories. Like a lot of kids I grew up with the show, adored it, and as an omnivorous reader I picked up piles of these books, often written by someone associated with the show – script editor for Who Terrance Dicks famously penned dozens of these novelisations, but so to did others from the show like writer Malcolm Hulke, Gerry Davis and Ian Marter (who played companion Harry Sullivan in the early Tom Baker era, and sadly died very young).

I’ve still got piles of these back at the parental mansion, part of my childhood, as they were for many kids my age and part of what fed my special love of science fiction in my still constant diet of reading. I didn’t know back then that one day I’d be penning reviews of the books I loved, or that I’d see quotes from those reviews used as blurb on book covers and book adverts, or that that love of reading would have me on stage introducing great authors at the Edinburgh Book Festival. Just shows you – no matter what they are picking up, if your kids are reading, let them, don’t police it, let them explore and enjoy those page-bound realms because who knows where it takes them in later life…

Historic Food Coupons
diet programs
Image by national museum of american history
The Museum acquired Food Stamp Program coupons and other related materials from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food and Nutrition Service, the cornerstone of U.S. food assistance programs designed to ensure that low-income citizens can obtain a nutritious diet.

Pictured here are food coupon store exchange artifacts. Cash change was not given for food coupon purchases. Instead grocers provided change chits and scrip of their own design, which the beneficiary could use for the next purchase.

Learn more

Kaapse Kanarie
diet programs
Image by Pixlab.co.za
IDENTIFICATION: 13-14 cm, 15 g. Sexes differ slightly in plumage coloration. (S. c. canicollis) Ad male: Forehead and crown mustard yellow; cheeks and chin greenish yellow. Ear coverts pale grey; nape, neck and mantle pale blue-grey. Lower mantle and back olive green, flecked with grey; rump and upper tail coverts yellowish green. Tail dark brown, rectrices with blackish-brown shafts and finely edged yellow on outer webs. Flight feathers blackish brown, outer webs edged yellow; secondaries with inner webs edged grey. Primary coverts blackish, edged yellow-green; remaining wing coverts bright olive green, greater coverts edged rich yellow. Axillaries grey, underwing coverts grey, tinged yellow. Chin and throat greenish yellow, central upper breast pale olive-khaki, shading through greenish yellow to lemon yellow on lower breast. Sides of upper breast pale grey, belly off-white. Flanks lemon yellow, undertail coverts lemon yellow, faintly tipped white. Bill horn. Eyes brown. Legs and feet dark pinkish brown7,24. Ad female: Duller than male, with yellow restricted to forehead. Crown pale grey, streaked blackish brown; mantle pale grey, streaked dusky. Back more streaked than male, upper breast with more grey, central and lower breast paler. Juv: As ad female, but duller, with upper- and underparts much more heavily streaked. Underparts off-white, with heavy dark brown streaking. Confusing species: Juvenile easily confused with juv Yellow Canary, but latter has distinct pale supercilium.

VOICE: Male sings from prominent perch on top of tree, in canopy high in tree, or in Butterfly display flight. Singing mainly associated with br activity; stops abruptly shortly before last chicks fledge24. In winter, small groups often sing simultaneously from prominent perches24. Song a sustained series of rich, loud, clear and fast jumbled warbles, trills and twitters, often in chorus with several males in 1 or adjacent trees24. Call a very sweet peet, swee-eee or pee-eee, rising in pitch, or trilled pit-it-it-it13,24.

DISTRIBUTION: Endemic to s Africa7. 2 disjunct populations: 1 in eastern highlands of Zimbabwe and probably adjacent Mozambique1, 1 along escarpment and adjacent highveld of S Africa from Soutpansberg, Limpopo Province, south through Mpumalanga and Swaziland; more widely down to sea level from c KwaZulu-Natal to W Cape, and marginally into N Cape in s Namaqualand mountains6.

POPULATION & DEMOGRAPHY: Locally common. In Swaziland, est 20 000 birds18. Up to 7 birds/km2 in mountain fynbos in Cape of Good Hope NR, W Cape5. Longevity of ringed birds at least 5 yr9,10,29. Occasionally killed by cars22; 1 caught in spider web15. Ringed birds killed by domestic cats Felis catus (n = 2) and cars (2)21.

MOVEMENTS & MIGRATIONS: Resident and largely sedentary, but some local movement and nomadism, especially at edge of range6,11. Local populations boosted by winter influxes in Free State24; large post-br exodus of imms from highlands of KwaZulu-Natal. May undergo regular altitudinal movements13. 1 bird ringed in Cape of Good Hope NR, W Cape, recovered at Caledon, 80 km away4.

HABITAT: Open Protea woodland, montane grassland with shrubs and patches of Oldwood Leucosidea sericea, open savanna, edges of drainage line woodland adjacent to shrubland in s Karoo, gardens, parks, alien plantations and edges of croplands; occasionally in alien Acacia thickets (Port Jackson A. saligna and Rooikrans A. cyclops) in W Cape31. Regularly forages in coastal dunes, and occasionally ventures onto mixed rocky and sandy shores19.

GENERAL HABITS: In pairs or family parties during br season; often in flocks of up to 500 when not br, sometimes in association with other small, granivorous birds24. Conspicuous, especially when males singing. Hops on ground. Flight undulating, with frequent brief wing closures24.

FORAGING & FOOD: Forages on ground, on bare patches, on recently mowed lawns and pastures, and among herbs, shrubs and trees; takes seeds directly from plants2. Eats seeds almost exclusively, particularly soft green seeds of grasses and achenes of numerous indigenous and alien plant genera incl Alyssum spp, pigweeds (Amaranthus spp), botterbloms (Arctotheca spp), geelblombossies (Athanasia spp), kleefbossies (Boerhavia spp), beefwoods (Casuarina spp), fat hens (Chenopodium spp), bloudisseldorings (Echium spp), Renosterbos Dicerothamnus rhinocerotis, ericas (Ericaceae, 2 genera), Karoo rosemaries (Eriocephalus spp), aandbossies (Gnidia spp), khakiweeds (Inula spp), birdseeds (Lepidium spp), Blombossies Metalasia muricata, wild olives (Olea spp), bitous (Osteospermum spp), suurings (Oxalis spp), meadow grasses (Poa spp), groundsels (Senecio spp), wild tobaccos (Silene spp), milk thistles (Sonchus spp), chickweeds (Stellaria spp), Stoebe spp, Ursinia spp and Namaqua marigolds (Venidium spp)2,16,24,32. Also eats flowers, flower buds of sagewood (Buddleja sp), fruits and some insects13,16,24.

BREEDING: Apparently monogamous24. Usually solitary nester, but sometimes loosely colonial, with up to 12 nests in several adjacent trees, 2 or 3 nests/tree24. Loose colonialism most frequent where nest sites limited33. Male gives Butterfly display flight, with full song; chases and fights frequently early in br season24. In courtship, male edges along branch towards female, swaying body and sometimes singing or mewing; may dash at female, resulting in aerial chase. 1 male carried fluff in bill while courting female24. Nest: Built almost entirely by female, in 14 d, 22 d (n = 2); female also selects site24. Male occasionally carries nest material, and often accompanies female when female gathers material24. A thick-walled cup of tendrils, frequently from everlastings (Helichrysum spp)24; also leaf petioles, lichens, mosses, fine twigs, rootlets, pine needles and pieces of rag, string, wool and cotton wool. Lined with hairy and downy pappuses from seeds, fluffy seeds of Karoo rosemaries (Eriocephalus spp), other plant downs, feathers, hair and wool23-25. Rim of rootlets around cup, where faeces deposited by nestlings, unique among canaries24. Outside diam 77-89 mm, height 46-51 mm; cup diam 46-56 mm, depth 26-33 mm24. Placed 1-18 m above ground in upright fork or on horizontal branch of bush or tree24,25; in W Cape, more frequently in alien trees than in native vegetation8. Laying dates: Zimbabwe Sept-Feb (22 of 24 records Oct-Dec)12; ne S Africa and KwaZulu-Natal Aug-Jan (55 of 65 records Oct-Dec)17,26; Free State Oct-Dec, 1 Mar record (11 of 13 records Nov-Dec)17; E Cape Jul-Jan (30 of 37 records Sept-Nov)17,24; W Cape Jul-Dec (91 of 96 records Aug-Nov)30. Eggs: 1-5, usually 3-4 (3.3, n = 74)13,17. Oval. White, pinkish or pale greenish white; sometimes plain, but usually with speckles, spots and blotches of red-brown, pale and dark brown, slate, mauve, grey and black, sometimes with black scroll marks. Markings scattered over egg, but often concentrated at obtuse end25. Size (n = 60) 15.8-18.9 x 11.6-13.6 mm (17.2 x 12.8 mm)13. Incubation: Period 12-16 d, usually 12-14 d (n = 7); by female only23. Male feeds female on nest, and rarely off nest. At arrival of male near or at nest, female begins a ‘tittering’ call. Male then feeds female by regurgitation, piece by piece, each feeding period lasting ca 30 sec24. Typical food given to female appears to be seeds, occasionally grasshoppers24. Development & care of young: Eggshells removed by ads24. Newly hatched young has skin orange, redder dorsally, with down (colour unspecified) on body feather tracts, and fine hairs on primary and tail feather tracts. Bill yellow, with black tip; gape red24. At 5 d, eyes begin to open and quills emerge; quills break open at 7 d. At 8 d, eyes fully open24. Show first fear reaction at 12 d, crouching in nest when approached24. Female broods nestlings for 2 d after hatching, with all food for nestlings brought by male; male also often feeds nestlings. Fed on regurgitated seeds24. Female sleeps on nest for 8-10 d, and protects nestlings from rain or sun by standing on nest rim with outstretched wings. Both ads remove faecal sacs from nest up to 8 d after hatching, from then on nestlings deposit faeces on nest rim. Nestling period 15.5-18.5 d (no mean, n = 4)23. Nestlings leave nest ca 2 d before flying, perching on adjacent twigs23. They continue to be fed for ‘some time’ by both ads, often begging vociferously24. Breeding success: Crude br success 49%; 76% of eggs hatched and 64% of chicks fledged, with 9% of eggs infertile (n = 78 eggs)24. Nestlings parasitised, sometimes fatally, by blood-sucking fly Passeromyia heterochaeta27. Post-nestling chicks vulnerable to predators, incl Common Fiscal24.

CONSERVATION: Not threatened; some trapped illegally for cage-bird trade28, but well represented in protected areas.

MOULT: Adults have complete post-br moult. In W Cape, ads start primary moult in Dec-Jan (rarely Nov), with first birds completing by Mar-Apr, although some still only moulting P3-P4 in Apr21. No birds caught in May actively moulting, but 1 with suspended moult (P8-P9 old)21, and 2 with complex patterns, where only a few primaries new21. 5 ads in Sept all in fresh plumage3. Often have 2-3 primaries growing at once in inner wing, but only 1-2 in outer wing21. Secondaries replaced only once primary moult well progressed; 1 bird growing outer primary had only replaced S1-S2, with S3 growing21.

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: Mainly in plumage coloration. Subspp: Africa 3, s Africa 3.

1. S. c. canicollis (Swainson). Western KwaZulu-Natal and w Free State, west along southern edge of Nama Karoo to W Cape; intergrades with S. c. thompsonae in east of range. (Described under Identification.)

2. S. c. thompsonae Roberts, 1924, Ann. Transvaal Mus., 10(3):186; no locality, but Type from Woodbush, Tzaneen, Limpopo Province. Escarpment of ne S Africa, south through Mpumalanga, w Swaziland and KwaZulu-Natal to e Free State and Lesotho. Primary coverts and alula brownish black; mantle and shoulders pale neutral grey.

3. S. c. griseitergum Clancey, 1967, Durban Mus. Novit., 8(10):112; Stapleford Forest Reserve, Umtali ( = Mutare), Zimbabwe. Eastern highlands of Zimbabwe and adjacent Mozambique. Forehead, crown and face greener and less yellow than nominate. Mantle, back and scapulars greenish, collar bluish grey. Underparts more greenish, less yellow. Slightly smaller: wing (35 unsexed) 72-81 (76.7); tail (36 unsexed) 49-61 (53.8); tarsus (48 unsexed) 13.5-17.0 (15.2); culmen (48 unsexed) 9.0-12.5 (10.1); mass (37 unsexed) 11.9-15.9 (13.9)14.

Taxonomic Note: Often considered conspecific with Yellow-crowned Canary S. flavivertex of e Africa and Angola, but plumage differs considerably and is genetically as distinct as other closely related spp (eg Yellow and Brimstone Canaries)20. No genetic difference detected between S. c. canicollis and S. c. thompsonae20, which are doubtfully distinct24.

MEASUREMENTS: S. c. thompsonae wing (30 male) 75-82 (79), (30 female) 72-79 (75); tail (10 male) 52-60 (56), (10 female) 50-55 (52); tarsus (10 male) 15.0-16.5 (15.5), (10 female) 15-16 (15.4); culmen (10 male) 11.5-12.5 (12.2), (10 female) 11-13 (12.0)7; mass mixed subspp (296 male) 12.0-21.7 (15.3), (156 female) 11.5-29.0 (15.1)21.

REFERENCES: 1. Clancey 1971 2. Dean 1987 3. Dowsett RJ (unpubl data) 4. Fraser 1986 5. Fraser 1990 6. Fraser 1997 7. Fry & Keith 2004 8. Ginn et al. 1989 9. Hanmer 1994 10. Hanmer 1997 11. Hockey et al. 1989 12. Irwin 1981 13. Maclean 1993 14. Manson 1990 15. McLaren 1944 16. Milewski 1978 17. NERCS (unpubl data) 18. Parker 1994 19. Ryan PG (pers obs) 20. Ryan et al. 2004 21. SAFRING (unpubl data) 22. Siegfried 1966 23. Skead 1948 24. Skead 1960 25. Tarboton 2001 26. Tarboton et al. 1987 27. Taylor 1949 28. Urquart 1992 29. Whitelaw 1983 30. Winterbottom 1968 31. Winterbottom 1970 32. Winterbottom 1973 33. Wolff & Jacobsen 1980.

1. Clancey PA 1971 A Handlist of the Birds of Southern Moçambique. Instituto de Investigação Científica de Moçambique, Lourenço Marques 2. Dean WRJ 1987 Canary foods and feeding techniques in the Knysna area. Bee-eater 38:26-27 4. Fraser M 1986 Travels of a Cape Canary. Promerops 174:12-13 5. Fraser MW 1990 Effects of natural vegetation, fire and alien plant invasion on bird species assemblages in Mountain Fynbos of the south-western Cape Province, South Africa. Unpubl. MSc Thesis, Univ. Cape Town 6. Fraser MW 1997 Cape Canary. In: Harrison JA et al. (eds). The Atlas of Southern African Birds. Vol. 2:654-655. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg 7. Fry CH, Keith S 2004 The Birds of Africa. Vol. 7. Christopher Helm, London 8. Ginn PJ, McIlleron WG, Milstein P le S 1989 The Complete Book of Southern African Birds. Struik Winchester, Cape Town 9. Hanmer DB 1994 Bird longevity in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe – first report. Safring News 23:55-64 10. Hanmer DB 1997 Bird longevity in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe – drought survivors. Safring News 26:47-54 11. Hockey PAR, Underhill LG, Neatherway M, Ryan PG 1989 Atlas of the Birds of the south-western Cape. Cape Bird Club, Cape Town 12. Irwin MPS 1981 The Birds of Zimbabwe. Quest Publishing, Salisbury 13. Maclean GL 1993 Roberts’ Birds of Southern Africa, 6th ed. John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town 14. Manson AJ 1990 Results of a ringing programme at Seldomseen, Vumba. Part 2. Honeyguide 36:131-141 15. McLaren G 1944 The Cape Canary caught in a web. Ostrich 15:68-69 16. Milewski AV 1978 Diet of Serinus species in the south-western Cape, with special reference to the Protea Canary. Ostrich 49:174-184 18. Parker V 1994 Swaziland Bird Atlas 1985-1991. Websters, Mbabane, Swaziland 20. Ryan PG, Wright D, Oatley G, Wakeling J, Cohen C, Nowell TL, Bowie RCK, Ward V, Crowe TM 2004 Systematics of Serinus canaries and the status of Cape and Yellow-crowned Canaries inferred from mtDNA and morphology. Ostrich 75:288-294 22. Siegfried WR 1966 Casualties among birds along a selected road in Stellenbosch. Ostrich 37:146-148 23. Skead CJ 1948 2. A study of the Cape Canary. (Serinus canicollis canicollis). Ostrich 19:17-44 24. Skead CJ 1960 The Canaries, Seed-eaters and Buntings of Southern Africa. Trustees of the South African Bird Book Fund, Cape Town 25. Tarboton W 2001 A Guide to the Nests and Eggs of Southern African Birds. Struik, Cape Town 26. Tarboton WR, Kemp MI, Kemp AC 1987 Birds of the Transvaal. Transvaal Museum, Pretoria 27. Taylor JS 1949 Dipterous parasites of nestling birds. Ostrich 20:171 28. Urquart C 1992 The illegal trade of wild birds in the eastern Cape – Part 2. Bee-eater 43:27-30 29. Whitelaw D 1983 Yet more on longevity. Safring News 12:24-26 30. Winterbottom JM 1968 A check list of the land and fresh water birds of the western Cape Province. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 53:1-276 31. Winterbottom JM 1970 The birds of the alien Acacia thickets of the South-Western Cape. Zool. Afr. 5:49-57 32. Winterbottom JM 1973 Note on the ecology of Serinus spp. in the western Cape. Ostrich 44:31-33 33. Wolff SW, Jacobsen NHG 1980 Cape Canary nest density. Ostrich 51:124.

WRJ Dean

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Alternative Names:
Engels (Rob 6): Cape Canary
Engels (Rob 7): Cape Canary
Alt Engels = Cape Canary, Yellow-crowned Canary
Inheems = umZwilili(Z),Umlonji(X),Tšwere(NS),Tšoere(SS),Risunyani(Ts),Ritswiri(Ts),Vusunyani(Ts),
Duits = Gelbscheitelgirlitz
Frans = Serin du Cap
Portugees = Canário-de-nuca-cinzenta
Nederlands = Geelkruinkanarie

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The 3 Week Diet
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